Objective: The aim was to assess the thickness of Schneiderian membranes (SM) in patients with advanced periodontal disease. Methods: 17 dentate patients (DG) scheduled for periodontal surgery on maxillary molars were consecutively recruited and cone beam computed tomographies performed for preoperative diagnosis. Twenty-one patients (EG) requiring cone beam computed tomography-based planning of implant placement in the edentulous posterior maxilla served as controls. Results: Schneiderian membrane thickness measured from cone beam computed tomography was significantly greater in the dentate group compared to the edentulous group, both in the first (p = 0.028) and second (p < 0.001) molar position. In the dentate group, clinical signs of periodontal destruction (increased probing pocket depth or furcation involvement) were not associated with Schneiderian membrane thickness. Additional findings, such as periapical lesions (p = 0.008), and the distance between root tips and maxillary sinus revealed a significant association (p = 0.036) with Schneiderian membrane thickness. Conclusion: In molar regions with periodontal destruction, Schneiderian membrane thickening occurred, particularly in combination with small bone layers above the root tips or periapical lesions.
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