Objective: We aimed to determine the salivary cytokine profi les of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17 among pregnant women and determine if the cytokine profiles change upon administration of vitamin D to these women. Methods: It was a community-based, blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. The intervention group comprised pregnant females (n = 36) who received oral vitamin D 4000 IU/day for 6 months (starting from 12 - 16 weeks until the end of pregnancy). Controls comprised pregnant females who received placebo (n = 49) for the same duration. Probing depth (PD), attachment loss (AL) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded. Saliva samples were subjected to multiplex ELISA analysis of cytokines. Serum vitamin D levels were determined. Outcome was assessed within 14 days post-partum. Periodontal examinations were done; blood and saliva samples were subjected to the set of tests described at baseline. SPSS 19.0 and Graph Pad 6.0 were used for analysis. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov with identifier number NCT01422122. Results: The two study groups were comparable at the baseline. Although IL-6 showed wide variation, none of the pro-inflammatory cytokine levels was affected by six months of oral vitamin D supplementation. Similarly, the mean salivary levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 also remained unaffected in the two groups. Conclusions: There was no association between hypovitaminosis D and periodontal disease among the studied sample of pregnant women. None of the salivary cytokines showed any significant change after six months of oral vitamin D supplementation to the pregnant women.
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