Aim: To evaluate the clinical and microbiological effects of systemic levofloxacin (LFX) in subjects with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-associated chronic periodontitis (AA-ACP). Materials and methods: Subjects with severe periodontitis with subgingival detection of A. actinomycetemcomitans were randomly divided into two treatment groups; a test group (n = 35) that received scaling and root planing (SRP) and LFX (500 mg o.d.) and a control group (n = 34) that received SRP and placebo (o.d.) for 10 days. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), percent of sites with bleeding on probing (%BoP), probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded and subgingival plaque samples were cultivated for detection of A. actinomycetemcomitans at baseline to 6 months at various intervals. Results: Subjects receiving LFX showed the greatest improvements in mean PD and CAL. The difference in the reduction of PD and CAL in the two groups was significant at 1, 3 and 6 months for PD and 3 and 6 months for CAL (p < 0.05). The inter-group difference in PI, GI and %BoP was not significant at any interval. Detectable levels of A. actinomycetemcomitans were significantly less in the test group 3 and 6 months post-therapy. Conclusion: Systemic LFX as an adjunct to SRP improves clinical outcomes and suppresses A. actinomycetemcomitans below detectable levels.
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