Objective: The aim of this clinical trial was to assess the performance of a full-mouth ultrasonic debridement protocol in the treatment of severe chronic periodontitis in comparison with scaling and root planing in a quadrant-wise procedure in smokers. Materials and Methods: The trial consisted of 30 participants presenting with periodontitis divided into 3 groups: Group FMUD - full-mouth ultrasonic debridement, i.e., one session of 45 minutes of ultrasonic instrumentation for smokers (n = 10), Group SRP- scaling and root planning performed in a quadrant-wise manner for smokers (n = 10), and Group Control - SRP for nonsmokers (n = 10), treated following the same protocol as the SRP group. The parameters evaluated were: plaque/bleeding on probing indices, probing pocket depth, relative recession, and relative probing attachment level at baseline, 45, 90 and 180 days after therapy. Results: Full-mouth ultrasonic debridement and scaling and root planing resulted in comparable gain of attachment 6 months after therapy. Both groups exhibited probing pocket depth reduction at all experimental periods as compared to baseline. Smokers, however, had less probing pocket depth reduction and relative probing attachment level gain compared to non-smokers, despite the mechanical protocol used (p < 0.05). Moreover, at 180 days, nonsmokers presented with fewer sites requiring re-treatment (probing pocket depth ≥ 5 mm and bleeding on probing) than smokers (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Full-mouth ultrasonic debridement and scaling and root planing result in comparable clinical outcomes for the treatment of smokers with severe chronic periodontitis. Despite the non-surgical technique used, smokers had a less favorable clinical response than non-smokers.
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